Micronaut Test

Testing Framework Extensions for Micronaut

Version: 1.0.0.RC2

1 Introduction

One of the design goals of Micronaut was to eliminate the artificial separation imposed by traditional frameworks between function and unit tests due to slow startup times and memory consumption.

With that in mind it is generally pretty easy to start Micronaut in a unit test and one of the goals of Micronaut was to as much as possible not require a test framework to test Micronaut. For example in Spock you can simply do:

@Shared (1)
@AutoCleanup (2)
EmbeddedServer embeddedServer = ApplicationContext.run(EmbeddedServer)
1 The field is declared as shared so to server is started only once for all methods in the class
2 The @AutoCleanup annotation ensures the server is shutdown after the test suite completes.

However, there are cases where having some additional features to test Micronaut come in handy, such as mocking bean definitions and so on.

This project includes a pretty simple set of extensions for JUnit 5 and Spock:

  • Automatically start and stop the server for the scope of a test suite

  • Use mocks to replace existing beans for the scope of a test suite

  • Allow dependency injection into a test instance

This is achieved through a set of annotations found in the io.micronaut.test.annotation package:

  • @MicronautTest - Can be added to any Spock or JUnit 5 test.

  • @MockBean - Can be added to methods or inner classes of a test class to define mock beans that replace existing beans for the scope of the test.

These annotations use internal Micronaut features and do not mock any part of Micronaut itself. When you run a test within @MicronautTest it is running your real application.

2 Testing with Spock

Setting up Spock

To get started using Spock you need the following dependencies in your build configuration:

build.gradle
testCompile "io.micronaut.test:micronaut-test-spock:1.0.0.RC2"
If you plan to define mock beans you will also need inject-groovy on your testCompile classpath or inject-java for Java or Kotlin (this should already be configured if you used mn create-app).

Or for Maven:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.micronaut.test</groupId>
    <artifactId>micronaut-test-spock</artifactId>
    <version>{version}</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

Writing a Micronaut Test with Spock

Let’s take a look at an example using Spock. Consider you have the following interface:

The MathService Interface
package io.micronaut.test.spock;

import javax.inject.Singleton;

@Singleton
interface MathService {

    Integer compute(Integer num);
}

And a simple implementation that computes the value times 4 and is defined as Micronaut bean:

The MathService implementation
package io.micronaut.test.spock

import javax.inject.Singleton

@Singleton
class MathServiceImpl implements MathService {

    @Override
    Integer compute(Integer num) {
        return num * 4 // should never be called
    }
}

You can define the following test to test it:

The MathService specification
package io.micronaut.test.spock

import io.micronaut.test.annotation.MicronautTest
import spock.lang.*
import javax.inject.Inject

@MicronautTest (1)
class MathServiceSpec extends Specification {

    @Inject
    MathService mathService (2)

    @Unroll
    void "should compute #num times 4"() { (3)
        when:
        def result = mathService.compute(num)

        then:
        result == expected

        where:
        num | expected
        2   | 8
        3   | 12
    }
}
1 The test is declared as Micronaut test with @MicronautTest
2 The @Inject annotation is used to inject the bean
3 The test itself tests the injected bean

Environments, Classpath Scanning etc.

The @MicronautTest annotation supports specifying the environment names the test should run with:

@MicronautTest(environments=["foo", "bar"])

In addition, although Micronaut itself doesn’t scan the classpath, some integrations do (such as JPA and GORM), for these cases you may wish to specify either the application class:

@MicronautTest(application=Application.class)

Or the packages:

@MicronautTest(packages="foo.bar")

To ensure that entities can be found during classpath scanning.

Using Spock Mocks

Now let’s say you want to replace the implementation with a Spock Mock. You can do so by defining a method that returns a Spock mock and is annotated with @MockBean, for example:

The MathService specification
package io.micronaut.test.spock

import io.micronaut.test.annotation.*
import spock.lang.*
import javax.inject.Inject

@MicronautTest
class MathMockServiceSpec extends Specification {

    @Inject
    MathService mathService (3)

    @Unroll
    void "should compute #num to #square"() {
        when:
        def result = mathService.compute(num)

        then:
        1 * mathService.compute(num) >> Math.pow(num, 2)  (4)
        result == square

        where:
        num | square
        2   | 4
        3   | 9
    }

    @MockBean(MathServiceImpl) (1)
    MathService mathService() {
        Mock(MathService) (2)
    }
}
1 The @MockBean annotation is used to indicate the method returns a mock bean. The value to the method is the type being replaced.
2 Spock’s Mock(..) method creates the actual mock
3 The Mock is injected into the test
4 Spock is used to verify the mock is called

Mocking Collaborators

Note that in most cases you won’t define a @MockBean and then inject it only to verify interaction with the Mock directly, instead the Mock will be a collaborator within your application. For example say you have a MathController:

The MathController
package io.micronaut.test.spock

import io.micronaut.http.MediaType
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get


@Controller('/math')
class MathController {

    MathService mathService

    MathController(MathService mathService) {
        this.mathService = mathService
    }

    @Get(uri = '/compute/{number}', processes = MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN)
    String compute(Integer number) {
        return mathService.compute(number)
    }
}

The above controller uses the MathService to expose a /math/compute/{number] endpoint. See the following example for a test that tests interaction with the mock collaborator:

Mocking Collaborators
package io.micronaut.test.spock

import io.micronaut.http.HttpRequest
import io.micronaut.http.client.RxHttpClient
import io.micronaut.http.client.annotation.Client
import io.micronaut.test.annotation.*
import spock.lang.*
import javax.inject.Inject

@MicronautTest
class MathCollaboratorSpec extends Specification {

    @Inject
    MathService mathService (2)

    @Inject
    @Client('/')
    RxHttpClient client (3)

    @Unroll
    void "should compute #num to #square"() {
        when:
        Integer result = client.toBlocking().retrieve(HttpRequest.GET('/math/compute/10'), Integer) (3)

        then:
        1 * mathService.compute(10) >> Math.pow(num, 2)  (4)
        result == square

        where:
        num | square
        2   | 4
        3   | 9
    }

    @MockBean(MathServiceImpl) (1)
    MathService mathService() {
        Mock(MathService)
    }

}
1 Like the previous example a Mock is defined using @MockBean
2 This time we inject an instance of RxHttpClient to test the controller.
3 We invoke the controller and retrieve the result
4 The interaction with mock collaborator is verified.

The way this works is that @MicronautTest will inject the Mock(..) instance into the test, but the controller will have a proxy that points to the Mock(..) instance injected. For each iteration of the test the mock is refreshed (in fact it uses Micronaut’s built in RefreshScope).

Using @Requires on Tests

Since @MicronautTest turns tests into beans themselves, it means you can use the @Requires annotation on the test to enable/disable tests. For example:

@MicronautTest
@Requires(env = "my-env")
class RequiresSpec extends Specification {
    ...
}

The above test will only run if my-env is active (you can active it by passing the system property micronaut.environments).

Defining Additional Test Specific Properties

You can define additional test specific properties using the @Property annotation. The following example demonstrates usage:

Using @Property
package io.micronaut.test.spock

import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Property
import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Value
import io.micronaut.test.annotation.MicronautTest
import spock.lang.Specification
import spock.lang.Stepwise

@MicronautTest
@Property(name = "foo.bar", value = "stuff")
@Stepwise
class PropertySpec extends Specification {


    @Value('${foo.bar}')
    String val

    void "test value"() {
        expect:
        val == 'stuff'
    }

    @Property(name = "foo.bar", value = "changed")
    void "test value changed"() {
        expect:
        val == 'changed'
    }

    void "test value restored"() {
        expect:
        val == 'stuff'
    }
}

Note that when a @Property is defined at the test method level, it causes a RefreshEvent to be triggered which will update any @ConfigurationProperties related to the property.

Alternatively you can specify additional propertySources in any supported format (YAML, JSON, Java properties file etc.) using the @MicronautTest annotation:

Using propertySources stored in files
package io.micronaut.test.spock

import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Property
import io.micronaut.test.annotation.MicronautTest
import spock.lang.Specification

import javax.inject.Inject

@MicronautTest(propertySources = "myprops.properties")
class PropertySourceSpec extends Specification {

    @Property(name = "foo.bar")
    @Inject
    String val

    void "test property source"() {
        expect:
        val == 'foo'
    }
}

The above example expects a file located at src/test/resources/io/micronaut/spock/myprops.properties. You can however use a prefix to indicate where the file should be searched for. The following are valid values:

  • file:myprops.properties - A relative path to a file somewhere on the file system

  • classpath:myprops.properties - A file relative to the root of the classpath

  • myprops.properties - A file relative on the classpath relative to the test being run.

3 Testing with JUnit 5

Setting up JUnit 5

To get started using JUnit 5 you need the following dependencies in your build configuration:

build.gradle
dependencies {
    ...
    testCompile "io.micronaut.test:micronaut-test-junit5:1.0.0.RC2"
    testCompile "org.mockito:mockito-junit-jupiter:2.22.0"
}

// use JUnit 5 platform
test {
    useJUnitPlatform()
}
If you plan to define mock beans you will also need inject-groovy on your testCompile classpath or inject-java for Java or Kotlin (this should already be configured if you used mn create-app).

Or for Maven:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.micronaut.test</groupId>
    <artifactId>micronaut-test-junit5</artifactId>
    <version>{version}</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

Note that for Maven you will also need to configure the Surefire plugin to use JUnit platform:

pom.xml
<plugin>
    <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
    <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>2.19.1</version>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.junit.platform</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit-platform-surefire-provider</artifactId>
            <version>1.1.0</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.junit.jupiter</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit-jupiter-engine</artifactId>
            <version>5.1.0</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</plugin>

Writing a Micronaut Test with JUnit 5

Let’s take a look at an example using JUnit 5. Consider you have the following interface:

The MathService Interface
package io.micronaut.test.junit5;

interface MathService {

    Integer compute(Integer num);
}

And a simple implementation that computes the value times 4 and is defined as Micronaut bean:

The MathService implementation
package io.micronaut.test.junit5;

import javax.inject.Singleton;

@Singleton
class MathServiceImpl implements MathService {

    @Override
    public Integer compute(Integer num) {
        return num * 4;
    }
}

You can define the following test to test the implementation:

The MathService specification
package io.micronaut.test.junit5;

import io.micronaut.test.annotation.MicronautTest;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions;
import org.junit.jupiter.params.ParameterizedTest;
import org.junit.jupiter.params.provider.CsvSource;

import javax.inject.Inject;


@MicronautTest (1)
class MathServiceTest {

    @Inject
    MathService mathService; (2)


    @ParameterizedTest
    @CsvSource({"2,8", "3,12"})
    void testComputeNumToSquare(Integer num, Integer square) {
        final Integer result = mathService.compute(num); (3)

        Assertions.assertEquals(
                square,
                result
        );
    }
}
1 The test is declared as Micronaut test with @MicronautTest
2 The @Inject annotation is used to inject the bean
3 The test itself tests the injected bean

Environments, Classpath Scanning etc.

The @MicronautTest annotation supports specifying the environment names the test should run with:

@MicronautTest(environments={"foo", "bar"})

In addition, although Micronaut itself doesn’t scan the classpath, some integrations do (such as JPA and GORM), for these cases you may wish to specify either the application class:

@MicronautTest(application=Application.class)

Or the packages:

@MicronautTest(packages="foo.bar")

To ensure that entities can be found during classpath scanning.

Using Mockito Mocks

Now let’s say you want to replace the implementation with a Mockito Mock. You can do so by defining a method that returns a mock and is annotated with @MockBean, for example:

The MathService specification
package io.micronaut.test.junit5;

import io.micronaut.test.annotation.MicronautTest;
import io.micronaut.test.annotation.MockBean;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions;
import org.junit.jupiter.params.ParameterizedTest;
import org.junit.jupiter.params.provider.CsvSource;
import org.mockito.stubbing.Answer;

import javax.inject.Inject;

import static org.mockito.Mockito.*;

@MicronautTest
class MathMockServiceTest {

    @Inject
    MathService mathService; (3)


    @ParameterizedTest
    @CsvSource({"2,4", "3,9"})
    void testComputeNumToSquare(Integer num, Integer square) {

        when(mathService.compute(10))
            .then(invocation -> Long.valueOf(Math.round(Math.pow(num, 2))).intValue()); (4)

        final Integer result = mathService.compute(10);

        Assertions.assertEquals(
                square,
                result
        );
        verify(mathService).compute(10); (4)
    }

    @MockBean(MathServiceImpl.class) (1)
    MathService mathService() {
        return mock(MathService.class); (2)
    }

}
1 The @MockBean annotation is used to indicate the method returns a mock bean. The value to the method is the type being replaced.
2 Mockito’s mock(..) method creates the actual mock
3 The Mock is injected into the test
4 Mockito is used to verify the mock is called

Note that because the bean is an inner class of the test, it will be active only for the scope of the test. This approach allows you to define beans that are isolated per test class.

Mocking Collaborators

Note that in most cases you won’t define a @MockBean and then inject it only to verify interaction with the Mock directly, instead the Mock will be a collaborator within your application. For example say you have a MathController:

The MathController
package io.micronaut.test.junit5;

import io.micronaut.http.MediaType;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get;

@Controller("/math")
public class MathController {
    MathService mathService;

    MathController(MathService mathService) {
        this.mathService = mathService;
    }

    @Get(uri = "/compute/{number}", processes = MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN)
    String compute(Integer number) {
        return String.valueOf(mathService.compute(number));
    }
}

The above controller uses the MathService to expose a /math/compute/{number} endpoint. See the following example for a test that tests interaction with the mock collaborator:

Mocking Collaborators
package io.micronaut.test.junit5;

import io.micronaut.http.HttpRequest;
import io.micronaut.http.client.RxHttpClient;
import io.micronaut.http.client.annotation.Client;
import io.micronaut.test.annotation.*;
import io.micronaut.test.annotation.MockBean;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.params.ParameterizedTest;
import org.junit.jupiter.params.provider.CsvSource;

import static org.mockito.Mockito.*;
import javax.inject.Inject;

@MicronautTest
class MathCollaboratorTest {

    @Inject
    MathService mathService;

    @Inject
    @Client("/")
    RxHttpClient client; (2)


    @ParameterizedTest
    @CsvSource({"2,4", "3,9"})
    void testComputeNumToSquare(Integer num, Integer square) {

        when( mathService.compute(num) )
            .then(invocation -> Long.valueOf(Math.round(Math.pow(num, 2))).intValue());

        final Integer result = client.toBlocking().retrieve(HttpRequest.GET("/math/compute/" + num), Integer.class); (3)

        assertEquals(
                square,
                result
        );
        verify(mathService).compute(num); (4)
    }

    @MockBean(MathServiceImpl.class) (1)
    MathService mathService() {
        return mock(MathService.class);
    }

}
1 Like the previous example a Mock is defined using @MockBean
2 This time we inject an instance of RxHttpClient to test the controller.
3 We invoke the controller and retrieve the result
4 The interaction with mock collaborator is verified.

The way this works is that @MicronautTest will inject the Mock(..) instance into the test, but the controller will have a proxy that points to the Mock(..) instance injected. For each iteration of the test the mock is refreshed (in fact it uses Micronaut’s built in RefreshScope).

Using @Requires on Tests

Since @MicronautTest turns tests into beans themselves, it means you can use the @Requires annotation on the test to enable/disable tests. For example:

@MicronautTest
@Requires(env = "my-env")
class RequiresTest {
    ...
}

The above test will only run if my-env is active (you can active it by passing the system property micronaut.environments).

Defining Additional Test Specific Properties

You can define additional test specific properties using the @Property annotation. The following example demonstrates usage:

Using @Property
package io.micronaut.test.junit5;

import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Property;
import io.micronaut.test.annotation.MicronautTest;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.*;

@MicronautTest
@Property(name = "foo.bar", value = "stuff")
class PropertyValueTest {

    @Property(name = "foo.bar")
    String val;

    @Test
    void testInitialValue() {
        assertEquals("stuff", val);
    }

    @Property(name = "foo.bar", value = "changed")
    @Test
    void testValueChanged() {
        assertEquals("changed", val);
    }

    @Test
    void testValueRestored() {
        assertEquals("stuff", val);
    }
}

Note that when a @Property is defined at the test method level, it causes a RefreshEvent to be triggered which will update any @ConfigurationProperties related to the property.

Alternatively you can specify additional propertySources in any supported format (YAML, JSON, Java properties file etc.) using the @MicronautTest annotation:

Using propertySources stored in files
package io.micronaut.test.junit5;

import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Property;
import io.micronaut.test.annotation.MicronautTest;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

@MicronautTest(propertySources = "myprops.properties")
class PropertySourceTest {

    @Property(name = "foo.bar")
    String val;


    @Test
    void testPropertySource() {
        Assertions.assertEquals("foo", val);
    }
}

The above example expects a file located at src/test/resources/io/micronaut/junit5/myprops.properties. You can however use a prefix to indicate where the file should be searched for. The following are valid values:

  • file:myprops.properties - A relative path to a file somewhere on the file system

  • classpath:myprops.properties - A file relative to the root of the classpath

  • myprops.properties - A file relative on the classpath relative to the test being run.